Examples of Literature

New Additions

Acemoglu, D., & Autor, D. (2011). Skills, tasks and technologies: Implications for employment and earnings. In Ashenfelter, O., & Card, D. (Eds.), Handbook of labor economics, Volume 4B. Oxford: Elsevier North Holland.

Allen, S.G. (2001). Technology and the wage structure. Journal of Labor Economics, 19(2), 440-483.

Altonji, J., & Blank, R. (1999). Race and gender in the labor market. In Ashenfelter, O., & Card, D. (Eds.)., Handbook of labor economics, Volume 3C. Oxford: Elsevier North Holland.

Ashenfelter, O., & Card, D. (Eds.). (2011). Handbook of labor economics, volume 4A. Oxford: Elsevier North Holland.

Ashenfelter, O., & Card, D. (Eds.). (2011). Handbook of labor economics, volume 4B. Oxford: Elsevier North Holland.

Becker, G. S., Hubbard, W. H. J., & Murphy, K. M. (2010). Explaining the worldwide boom in higher education of women. Journal of Human Capital, 4(3), 203-241.

Bowles, S., Gintis, H., & Groves, M.O. (2005). Unequal chances: Family background and economic success. Princeton: Princeton University Press

Broda, C., & Weinstein, D.E. (2010). Product creation and destruction: Evidence and price implications. American Economic Review, 100(2), 691-723.

Buchinsky, M., & Leslie, P. (2010). Educational attainment and the changing U.S. wage structure: Dynamic implications on young individuals’ choices. Journal of Labor Economics, 28(3), 541-594.

Ehrlich, I., & Murphy, K. (2007). Why does human capital need a journal? Journal of Human Capital, 1(1), 1-7.

Fullerton, D., & Rodgers, D.L. (1993). Who bears the lifetime tax burden? Washington: The Brookings Institution.

Gathmann, C., & Schonberg. U. (2010). How general is human capital? A task-based approach. Journal of Labor Economics, 28(1), 1-49.

Goldin, C., & Katz, L.F. (2008). The race between education and technology. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Heckman, J.J., & Krueger, A.B. (2003). Inequality in America: What role for human capital policies? Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Jacobsen, J. P. (2007). The Economics of gender. Malden: Blackwell Publishing.

Levy, F., & Murnane, R.J. (2004). The new division of labor: How computers are creating the next job market. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Savvides, A., & Stengos, T. (2009). Human capital and economic growth. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

An Example for Lawyers

Leibowitz, A., & Tollison, R. (1978). Earning and learning in law firms. Journal of Legal Studies, 7(1), 65-81.

Of Special Interest

Ang, A., Bekaert, G., & Wei, M. (2005). Do macro variables, asset markets or surveys forecast inflation better? (NBER Working Paper 11538).

Ben-Porath, Y. (1967). The production of human capital and the life cycle of earnings. Journal of Political Economy, 75, 352-65.

Bils, M. (2009). Do higher prices for new goods reflect quality growth or inflation? Quarterly Journal of Economics, 124(2), 637-675.

Bloom, D. (1993). Some reflections on Jacob Mincer. Journal of Labor Economics, 11(1), v-viii.

Chiswick, B. (2003, August). Jacob Mincer, experience and the distribution of earnings (IZA Discussion paper 847).

Grossbard, S. (2006). Jacob Mincer: A pioneer of modern labor economics. New York: Springer.

Guryan, J. (2009). The race between education and technology: A review article. Journal of Human Capital, 3(2), 177-196.

Heckman, J., Lochner, L., & Todd, P. (2003). Fifty years of Mincer earnings regressions (NBER Working Paper 9732).

Kiker, B. (1966). The historical roots of human capital. The Journal of Political Economy, 74(5), 481-499.

Kydland, F. (2005). Quantitative aggregate economics. American Economic Review, 96, 1373-1383.

Loewenstein, M., & Spletzer, J. (1996). Belated training: The relationship between training, tenure, and wages (Bureau of Labor Statistics Working Paper 296).

Morrisson, C., & Murtin, F. (2009). The century of education. Journal of Human Capital, 3(1), 1-42.

Murphy, K., & Welch, F. (1990). Empirical age-earnings profiles. Journal of Labor Economics, 8(2), 202-229.

Polachek, S. W. (2008). Earnings over the life cycle: The Mincer earnings function and its applications. Foundations and Trends in Microeconomics, 4(3), 165-272.

Rosen, S. (1992). Distinguished fellow: Mincering labor economics. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 6(2), 157-170.

Schultz, T. W. (1961). Investment in human capital. American Economic Review, 51(1), 1-17.

Teixeira, P. (2007). Jacob Mincer: A founding father of modern labor economics. Oxford: Oxford UP.

Weisbrod, B. (1961). The valuation of human capital. The Journal of Political Economy, 69(5), 425-436.

Willis, R. (1986). Wage determinants: A survey and reinterpretation of human capital earnings functions. In O. Ashenfelter & R. Layard (Eds.), Handbook of Labor Economics, Volume I. Oxford, UK: Elsevier.

Other Interesting Books

Ashenfelter, O., & Layard, R. (Eds.). (1986). Handbook of labor economics, Volume 1. Oxford: Elsevier North Holland.

Ashenfelter, O., & Layard, R. (Eds.). (1986). Handbook of labor economics, Volume 2. Oxford: Elsevier North Holland.

Ashenfelter, O., & Card, D. (Eds.). (1999). Handbook of labor economics, Volume 3A. Oxford: Elsevier North Holland.

Ashenfelter, O., & Card, D. (Eds.). (1999). Handbook of labor economics, Volume 3B. Oxford: Elsevier North Holland.

Ashenfelter, O., & Card, D. (Eds.). (1999). Handbook of labor economics, Volume 3C. Oxford: Elsevier North Holland.

Becker, G. (1975). Human capital, 2nd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. (Chapters 3 & 4).

Becker, G. A. (1981). Treatise on the family. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Febrero, R., & Schwartz, P. (1995). The essence of Becker. Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press.

Hanushek, E., & Welch, F. (2006). Handbook of the economics of education (Vol. 1). Oxford: Elsevier North Holland.

Hanushek, E., & Welch, F. (2006). Handbook of the economics of education (Vol. 2). Oxford: Elsevier North Holland.

Haveman, R., Bershadker, A., & Schwabish, J. (2003). Human capital in the United States from 1975 to 2000. W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.

Salverda, W., Nolan, B., & Smeeding, T. (2009). The Oxford handbook of economic inequality. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. 

Human Capital and Earnings

Autor, D. H., Katz, L. F., & Kearney, M. S. (2008). Trends in U.S. wage inequality: Revising the revisionists. Review of Economics and Statistics 90(2), 300-323.

Champernowne, D., & Cowell, F. (1998). Economic inequality and income distribution. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Heckman, J. (1976). A life-cycle model of earnings, learning and consumption. Journal of Political Economy, 84(4), S11-44.

Heckman, J., & Lochner, L. (2000). Distinguishing between learning-by-doing and on-the-job training (Working Paper).

Heckman, J., Lochner, L., & Todd, P. (2005). Earnings functions, rates of return, and treatment effects: The Mincer equation and beyond (NBER Working Paper 11544).

Judd, K. (2000). Is education as good as gold? A portfolio analysis of human capital investment (Stanford University Working Paper).

Killingsworth, M. (1982). 'Learning by doing’ and ‘investment in training’: Two rival models of the life cycle. Review of Economic Studies, 49, 263-71.

Lazear, E. (1981). Agency, earnings profiles, productivity, and hours restrictions. American Economic Review, 71(4), 606-620.

Lochner, L. (2000). Learning-by-doing and on-the-job training in general equilibrium. Notes.

Mincer, J. (1974). Schooling, experience and earnings. New York: Columbia University Press.

Neal, D. (1995). Industry-specific human capital: Evidence from displaced workers. Journal of Labor Economics, 13(4), 653-77.

Polachek, S., & Siebert, W. S. (1993). The economics of earnings. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Rosen, S. (1972). Learning and experience in the labor market. Journal of Human Resources, 7(3), 326-42.

Rosen, S. (1976). A theory of life earnings. Journal of Political Economy, 84(4), S45-67.

Topel, R. (1991). Specific capital, mobility, and wages: Wages rise with job seniority. Journal of Political Economy, 99(1), 145-76.

Weiss, Y. (1986). The determination of life cycle earnings. In O. Ashenfelter and R. Layard, (Eds.), Handbook of labor economics, Volume I. Oxford, UK: Elsevier.

Williams, J. (1979). Uncertainty and the accumulation of human capital over the life cycle. Journal of Business, 52(4), 521-48.

Willis, R. (1986). Wage determinants: A survey of human capital earnings. In O. Ashenfelter and R. Layard, (Eds.), Handbook of Labor Economics, Volume I. Oxford, UK: Elsevier.


Browning, M., & Crossley, T. (2001). The life-cycle model of consumption and saving. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 15(3), 3-22.

Deaton, A., & Muellbauer, J. (1980). Economics and consumer behavior. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Ferber, R. (1973). Consumer economics, a survey. Journal of Economic Literature, 11, 1303-42.

Fernandez-Villaverde, J., & Krueger, D. (2007). Consumption over the life cycle: Facts from consumer expenditure survey data. Review of Economics and Statistics, 89(3), 552-565.

Fisher, J., Johnson, D., Marchand, J., Smeeding, T., & Torrey, B. (2008). The retirement consumption conundrum: Evidence from a consumption survey. Economics Letters, 99, 482-485.

Friedman, M. (1957). A theory of the consumption function. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Gourinchas, P., & Parker, J. (1999, July). Consumption over the life cycle (NBER Working Paper 7271). National Bureau of Economic Research.

Heckman, J. (1976). A life-cycle model of earnings, learning and consumption. Journal of Political Economy, 84(4), S11-44.

Kerwin, K. C., Hurst, E., & Roussanov, N. (2009). Conspicuous consumption and race. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 124(2), 425-467.

Modigliani, F., & Brumberg, R. (1954). Utility analysis and the consumption function: An interpretation of cross-section data. In K. Kurihara (Ed.), Post-Kenyesian economics. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP.

Analysis and Explanation of Historical National Wage Patterns

Beaudry, P., & Green, D. A. (2005). Changes in U.S. wages, 1976-2000: Ongoing skill bias or major technological change? Journal of Labor Economics, 23, 609-648.

Bound, J., & Johnson, G. (1989, May). Changes in the structure of wages during the 1980s: An evaluation of alternative explanations (NBER Working Paper 2983).

Card, D., & DiNardo, J. E. (2002). Skill-biased technological change and rising wage inequality: Some problems and puzzles. Journal of Labor Economics, 20, 733-783.

Card, D., & Lemieux, T. (2000). Can falling supply explain the rising return to college for younger men? A cohort-based analysis (NBER Working Paper 7655).

Dustmann, C., Ludsteck, J., & Schonberg, U. (2009). Revisiting the German wage structure. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 124(2), 843-881.

Feyer, J. (2008). Demographics and productivity. Review of Economics and Statistics, 89(1), 100-109.

Gottschalk, P. (1997). Inequality, income growth, and mobility: The basic facts. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 11(2), 21-40.

Heckman, J., & Honore, B. (1990). Empirical content of the Roy model. Econometrica, 58, 1121-49.

Heckman, J. J., Lochner, L., & Taber, C. (1998). Explaining rising wage inequality: Explorations with a dynamic general equilibrium model of labor earnings with heterogeneous agents. Review of Economic Dynamics, 1(1), 1–58.

Jaimovich, N., & Siu, H.E. (2009). The young, the old and the restless: Demographics and business cycle volatility. American Economic Review, 98(3), 804-826.

Kosters, M. (1990). Schooling, work experience and wage trends. American Economic Review, 80(2), 309-12.

Levy, F., & Murnane, R. (1992). U.S. earnings levels and earnings inequality: A review of recent trends and proposed explanations. Journal of Economic Literature, 30, 1333-81.

Lochner, L. (2000). Job ladders. Notes.

Murphy, K. M., & Katz, L. (1992). Changes in relative wages, 1963-1987: Supply and demand factors. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 107, 35-78.

Education, Its Determinants, Human Capital and Policy

Acemoglu, D., & Angrist, J. (2000). How large are human capital externalities? Evidence from compulsory schooling laws. NBER Macroeconomics Annual, 15, 9-59.

Blau, D. (1999). The effect of income on child development. Review of Economics and Statistics, 81(2), 261-76.

Card, D. (1995). Earnings, schooling, and ability revisited. Research in Labor Economics, 14 , 23-48.

Card, D. (1999). The causal effect of education on earnings. In O. Ashenfelter and D. Card (Eds.), Handbook of Labor Economics, Volume 3. Oxford, UK: Elsevier.

Card, D., & Krueger, A. (1992). Does school quality matter? Returns to education and characteristics of public schools in the United States. Journal of Political Economy, 101(1), 1-40.

Carniero, P., & Heckman, J. (2002). Human capital policy (Working Paper).

Elwood, D., & Kane, T. (1998). Who is getting a college education: Family background and the growing gaps in enrollment (Working Paper).

Hanushek, E. (1986). The economics of schooling: Production and efficiency in public schools. Journal of Economic Literature, 24, 1141-77.

Hanushek, E., Chea, B. C., & Leung, C. (1998). Redistribution through education and other transfer mechanisms (Working Paper).

Haveman, R., & Wolfe, B. (1995). The determinants of children’s attainments: A review of methods and findings. Journal of Economic Literature, 33, 1829-78.

Heckman, J., Layne-Farrar, A., & Todd, P. (1996). Human capital pricing equations with an application to estimating the effect of schooling quality on earnings. Review of Economics and Statistics, 78(4), 562-610. 

Heckman, J., Lochner, L., & Taber, C. (1998). Tax policy and human capital formation. American Economic Review, 88(2), 293-297.

Kane, T. (1994). College entry by blacks since 1970: The role of college costs, family background, and the returns to education. Journal of Political Economy, 102(5), 878-911.

Keane, M., & Wolpin, K. (1999). The effect of parental transfers and borrowing constraints on educational attainment (Working Paper).

Lang, K. (1994). Ability bias, discount rate bias, and the return to education. Unpublished Manuscript.

Lochner, L., & Moretti, E. (2002). The effect of education on crime: Evidence from prison inmates, arrests, and self-reports (Working Paper).

National Center for Education Statistics. (2001). Students whose parents did not go to college. U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and improvement, NCES 2001-126.

Woessmann, L. (2000, October). Specifying human capital: A review, some extensions, and development effects (Kiel Working Paper 1007).

A Few Examples of Recent Non-Litigation Applications of Human Capital Earnings Functions

The following are but a few of the articles found in a search using EconLit, probably the most all-inclusive body of economics and related literature.  The search was limited to articles appearing during the last nine years that reference the human capital earnings function in the abstract.  Those using that method but not mentioning it in the abstract number in the hundreds.

Aly, A. (2004). Returns to education of U.S. Arab immigrants. Doctoral Dissertation, Kansas State University.

Andini, C. (2010). A dynamic Mincer equation with an application to Portuguese data. Applied Economics, 42(16-18), 2091-2098.

Andini, C., & Pereira, P. T. (2007, March). Full-time schooling, part-time schooling, and wages: Returns and risks in Portugul (IZA Discussion Paper 2651).

Aslam, M. (2009). Education gender gaps in Pakistan: Is the labor market to blame? Economic Development and Cultural CHange, 57(4), 747-784.

Bargain, O., Bhaumik, S. K., Chakrabarty, M., & Zhao, Z. (2009). Earnings differences between Chinese and Indian wage earners, 1987-2004. Review of Income and Wealth, 55(1), 562-587.

Beach, F., & Finnie, R. (2004). A longitudinal analysis of earnings change in Canada. Canadian Journal of Economics, 37(1), 219-38.

Beaudry, P., & Green, D. (2000). Cohort patterns in Canadian earnings: Assessing the role of skill premia in inequality trends. Canadian Journal of Economics, 33, 907-936.

Black, D., Kolesnikova, N., & Taylor, L. (2009). Earnings functions when wages and prices vary by location. Journal of Labor Economics, 27(1), 21-47.

Black, B., Trainor, M., & Spencer, J. (1999). Wage protection systems, segregation and gender pay inequalities: West Germany, the Netherlands and Great Britain. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 23(4), 449-64.

Blom, A., & Sohnesen, T. (2005). Is formal lifelong learning a profitable investment for all of life? How age, education level and flexibility of provision affect rates of return to adult education in Colombia (Policy Research Paper 3800). World Bank.

Bosworth, B., Furtless, G., & Steuerle, E. (2002). Lifetime earnings patterns, the distribution of future Social Security benefits and the impact of pension reform (Center for Retirement Research Working Paper).

Brunello, G., Fort, M., & Weber, G. (2009). Changes in compulsory schooling, education, and the distribution of wages in Europe. Economic Journal, 119(536), 516-539.

Chakraborty, I., & Chakraborty, A. (2010). Female work participation and gender differential in earning in West Bengal, India. Journal of Quantitative Economics, 8(2), 98-114.

Chapman, B. (2000). Unemployment traps and age-earnings profiles: Estimates for Australia in 2000. Australian Journal of Labour Economics, 4(3), 174-91.

Chiswick, B. (1999). Interpreting the coefficient of schooling in the human capital earnings function (Policy Research Working Paper Series). The World Bank.

Chiswick, B. R., & Miller, P. W. (2008). Occupational attainment and immigrant economic progress in Australia. Economic Record, 84(0), S45-56.

Csengodi, S., & Urban, D. M. (2008, January). Foreign takeovers and wage dispersion in Hungary (CESifo Working Paper 2188).

Dobbie, M., & MacMillan, C. (2010). Internal labour markets in Australia: Evidence form the Survey of Education and training experience. Australian Journal of Labour Economics, 13(2), 137-154.

Dumas, A., Silber, J., & Weber, M. (2010). On the measurement of wage mobility and its decomposition. Annales d'Economie et de Statistique, 0(99-100), 91-116.

Faruqee, H., & Muhleisen, M. (2005). Population aging in Japan: Demographic shock and fiscal sustainability (IMF Working Paper). International Monetary Fund.

Faruqee, J. (2002, February). Population aging and its macroeconomic implications: A framework for analysis (IMF Working Paper). International Monetary Fund.

Francesconi, M., Sutherland, H., & Zantomio, F. (2011). A comparison of earnings measures from longitudinal and cross-sectional surveys: Evidence from the UK. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society), 174(2), 297-326.

Frogner, B. K., & Anderson, G. F. (2007). Long-term growth modeling of healthcare spending in OECD countries, 1970-2004. Paper presented at 6th World Congress of the International Health Economics Association, July 11, 2007.

Hammarstedt, M. (2009). Predicted earnings and the propensity for self-employment: Evidence from Sweden. International Journal of Manpower, 30(3-4), 349-359.

Heimann, T., & Trede, M. (2011). A continuous-time model of income dynamics. Journal of Income Distribution, 20(1), 104-116.

Humphreys, B. (2000). Equal pay on the hardwood: The earnings gap between male and female NCAA Division 1 basketball coaches. Journal of Sports Economics, 1(3), 299-307.

Jacobs, B., Schindler, D., & Yang, H. (2009). Optimal taxation of risky human capital (CESifo Working Paper Series 2529). CESifo Group.

Kara, O. (2010). Comparing two approaches to the rate of return to investment in education. Education Economics, 18(2), 153-165.

Kazianga, H. (2004, August). Schooling returns for wage earners in Burkina Faso: Evidence from the 1994 and 1998 national surveys (Yale University Economic Growth Center Discussion Paper 892).

Kifle, T. (2009). The effect of immigration on the earnings of native-born workers: Evidence from Australia. Journal of Socio-Economics, 38(2), 350-356.

Kiker, B., Santos, M., & de Oliveira, M. (1997). Overeducation and undereducation: Evidence for Portugal. Economics of Education Review, 16(2), 111-125.

Kim, S., & Kim, J. (1998). Human capital-tcechnology complementarity and multiple equilibria. Journal of Economic Theory and Econometrics, 4(2), 41-68.

Kuepie, M., Nordman, C. J., & Roubaud, F. (2009). Education and earnings in urban West Africa. Journal of Comparative Economics, 37(3), 491-515.

Lakshmanasamy, T., & Ramasamy, S. (1999). An econometric analysis of the worker choice between public and private sector. Indian Journal of Labour Economics, 42(1), 71-83.

Lilo, A., & Casado-Diaz, J. M. (2010). On the rewards to education in Spain: Endogeneity and regional differences. Regional and Sectoral Economic Studies, 10(3), 37-54.

Lucifora, C., & Simmons, R. (2003). Superstar effects in sport: Evidence from italian soccer. Journal of Sports Economics, 4(1), 35-55.

MacDonald, G., & Weisbach, M. (2004). The economics of has-beens. Journal of Political Economy, 112(1), S289-310.

Merz, J., Bohm, P., & Burgert, D. (2009). Timing and fragmentiation of daily working hours arrangements and income inequality: An earnings treatment effects approach with German time use diaries. International Journal of Time Use Research, 6(2), 200-239.

Miranda, A., & Barros, P. P. (2008). Obesity-related wage differentials: Evidence from Portugul (Working Paper).

Mora, M. T., & Davila, A. (2011). Cross-border earnings of U.S. natives along the U.S.-Mexico border. Social Science Quarterly, 92(3), 850-874.

Morris, S., & McGuire, A. (2002). The private net present value and private internal rate of return to becoming a nurse in Great Britain. Applied Economics, 34, 2189-2200.

Nesterenko, A. (2009). Intermittent employment histories and labor market outcomes (Doctoral dissertation). SUNY Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY.

Neumark, D., & Stock, W. (1999). Age discrimination laws and labor market efficiency. Journal of Political Economy, 107, 1081-1110.

Ordaz-Diaz, J. L. (2008). The economic returns to education in Mexico: A comparison between urban and rural areas. CEPAL Review, 0(96), 265-282.

Parthasarathy, A., Menon, K., & Bhattacherjee, D. (2007). A note on managerial compensation in the IT sector: A study of five large Indian firms. Journal of Labour Economics, 50(1), 129-136.

Pendakur, K., & Pendakur, R. (2002). Colour my world: Have earnings gaps for Canadian-born ethnic minorities changed over time” Canadian Public Policy, 28(4), 489-512.

Poterba, J., Venti, S., & Wise, D. (1999). Implications of rising personal retirement savings (NBER Working Paper 6295). National Bureau of Economic Research.

Richter, W. F. (2009). Taxing education in Ramsey's tradition. Journal of Public Economics, 93, 1254-1260.

Richter, W. F. (2011). Efficient education policy: A second-order elasticity rule. FinanzArchiv, 67(1), 1-7.

Richter, W. F., & Kunze, L. (2011). Taxing human capital efficiently when qualified labour is mobile (CESifo Working Paper Series 3366). CESifo Group.

Salehi-Isfahani, D., Tunali, I., & Assaad, R. (2009) A comparative study of returns to education of urban men in Egypt, Iran, and Turkey. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Department of Economics, Working Papers.

Schady, N. (2001). Convexity and sheepskin effects in the human capital earnings function: Recent evidence for Filipino men (Policy Research Working Paper Series 2566). The World Bank.

Siphambe, H. K., & Tihobogang, O. (2010). Earnings differentials in Botswana's labour market: Private versus public sector. International Journal of Education Economics and Development, 1(3), 215-226.

Smith, K. (2001). Age/earnings profiles in transition economies: The Estonian case. Post-Communist Economies, 13(4), 485-503.

Steen, T. (2005). Is there an earnings premium for Catholic women? Evidence from the NYS youth cohort. Faith and Economics, 45, 21-40.

Teal, F. (2011). Higher education and economic development in Africa: A review of channels and interactions. Journal of African Economies, 20, 50-79.

Thamma-Apiroamm, R. (2009). Identifying and estimating ability from nonlinear human capital earnings functions (Doctoral dissertation). Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY.

Thompson, P. (2003). Technological change and the age-earnings profile: Evidence from the International Merchant Marine, 1861-1912. Review of Economic Dynamics, 6(3), 578-601.

Uribe, J. I., Ortiz, C. H., & Garcia, G. A. (2007). Columbian labor market division during the nineties. Revista de Economia Institucional, 9(16), 189-221.

Vieira, J. A. C., Couto, J. P., & Tiago, M. T. B. (2005, July). Inter-regional wage dispersion in Portugul (IZA Discussion Paper 1664).

Vincent, C., & Eastman, B. (2009). Determinants of pay in the NHL: A quantile regression approach. Journal of Sports Economics, 10(3), 256-277.

Yasmin, B. (2009). Trade liberalization and the lead role of human capital and job attributes in wage determination: The case of Pakistan's labor market. Lahore Journal of Economics, 14(1), 1-37.

Zheng, S., Wang, Z., & Wang, H. (2010). Do nutrition and health affect migrant workers' incomes? Some evidence from Beijing, China. China and World Economy, 18(5), 105-124.

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